Harold Pinter, CH, CBE (born October 10, 1930) is a British playwright, poet, actor, director, and political activist, best known for his plays The Birthday Party (1957), The Caretaker (1959), The Homecoming (1964), and Betrayal (1978), and for his screenplay adaptations of novels by others, such as The Servant (1963) and The French Lieutenant's Woman (1980).
The recipient of scores of awards and honorary degrees, Pinter received the Nobel Prize in Literature from the Swedish Academy in December 2005. In its citation, the Academy states that "Harold Pinter is generally regarded as the foremost representative of British drama in the second half of the 20th century."
Pinter was born in Hackney in London to native English-Jewish parents of Eastern-European ancestry. Correcting general knowledge about Pinter's family background, Michael Billington, Pinter's authorized biographer, documents that "three of Pinter's grandparents hail from Poland and one from Odessa, making them Ashkenazic rather than Sephardic Jews." Pinter was educated at Hackney Downs Grammar School. A "profound influence" on him was his evacuation to Cornwall and Reading from London during 1940 and 1941 before and during The Blitz and facing "the life-and-death intensity of daily experience" (Billington, Life and Work 5-10). He frequently wrote and published poetry as a teenager (and has continued to do so throughout his career). He played Romeo and Macbeth in 1947 and 1948, while still a student at Hackney Downs Grammar School in productions directed by his English tutor, mentor, and friend Joseph Brearley (13-14).
Beginning in autumn 1948, for two semesters, he attended the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art (RADA). Later that year, he was "called up for National Service," registered as a conscientious objector, was brought to trial twice, and ultimately fined by the magistrate for refusing to serve. He "loath[ed]" RADA, mostly cut classes, and dropped out in 1949. He had a minor role in Dick Whittington and His Cat at the Chesterfield Hippodrome in 1949-50. From January to July 1951, he attended "two terms" at the Central School of Speech and Drama. From 1951-52, he toured Ireland with the Anew McMaster repertory company, playing over a dozen roles; in 1952 he began regional repertory acting jobs in England; and from 1953-54, he worked for the Donald Wolfit Company, King's Theatre, Hammersmith, performing nearly ten roles. From 1954 until 1959, Harold Pinter acted under the stage name David Baron. According to Billington, Pinter worked as an actor for "about nine years," primarily in regional repertory companies, performing nearly twenty-five roles. During that period, he also performed occasional roles in his own and others' works (for radio, TV, and film), as he has done increasingly more recently.
From 1956 until 1980, Pinter was married to Vivien Merchant, a rep actress whom he met on tour, probably best known for her performance in the original film Alfie (1966). Their son, Daniel, was born in 1958. Through the early 70s, Merchant appeared in many of Pinter's works, most notably The Homecoming on stage (1965) and screen (1973). The marriage was rather "turbulent" and began disintegrating in the mid-1960s. For seven years, from 1962-69, Pinter was engaged in a clandestine affair with Joan Bakewell, which informed his play Betrayal (1978). According to his own program notes for that play, between 1975 and 1980, he lived with historian Lady Antonia Fraser, wife of Sir Hugh Fraser. In 1975, Merchant filed for divorce.. The Frasers' divorce became final in 1977 and the Pinters' in 1980. In 1980, Pinter married Antonia Fraser. Unable to overcome her bitterness and grief at the loss of her husband, Vivien Merchant died of acute alcoholism in 1983. According to Billington, Pinter "did everything possible to support" her until her death and regrets that he became estranged from their son, Daniel, after their separation and Pinter's marriage to Antonia Fraser. Pinter has stated publicly in several recent interviews that he remains "very happy" in his second marriage and enjoys family life, which includes his six adult step-children and over twice as many grandchildren.
Career (1957- )
Pinter is the author of twenty-nine plays, fifteen dramatic sketches, and over twenty screenplays and filmscripts for cinema and television and co-author of two works for stage and radio. Along with the 1967 Tony Award for Best Play for The Homecoming and several other American awards and award nominations, he and his plays have received many awards in the UK and elsewhere throughout the world. His screenplays for The French Lieutenant's Woman and Betrayal were nominated for Academy Awards in the category of "Writing: Screenplay Based on Material from Another Medium" in 1981 and 1983, respectively. (See Honors.)
Pinter's first play, The Room, written in 1957, was a student production at the Bristol University directed by (later acclaimed) actor Henry Woolf, who also originated the role of Mr. Kidd in that play (which he reprised in 2001). After his longtime friend Pinter had mentioned that he had an "idea" for a play, Woolf asked him to write it so that he could direct it as part of fulfilling requirements for his postgraduate work. Pinter wrote it in three days. To mark and celebrate the fiftieth anniversary of that first production of The Room, Henry Woolf will again be reprising his role of Mr. Kidd, as well as his role of the Man in Pinter's play Monologue, as part of an international symposium at the University of Leeds being planned for April 2007.
The Birthday Party (1957), Pinter's second play and among his best-known, was initially a disaster, despite a rave review in the Sunday Times by leading theater critic (the late) Sir Harold Hobson, which appeared only after the play closed and thus could not save that production. Hobson is generally credited by Pinter himself and other critics as bolstering him and perhaps even rescuing his career After the success of The Caretaker in 1960, which established Pinter's theatrical reputation, The Birthday Party was revived both on television (with Pinter himself in the role of Goldberg) and on stage and well received. By the time Peter Hall's production of The Homecoming (1964) reached New York (1967), Harold Pinter had become a celebrity playwright, and the play garnered four Tony awards, among other awards.
In a review published in 1958, borrowing from the subtitle of A Lunatic View, a play by David Campton, theater critic Irving Wardle also called Pinter's early plays "comedy of menace," a label that people have applied repeatedly to his work, at times pigeonholing and attempting to tame it. (Cf. Comedy of manners.) Such plays begin with an apparently innocent situation that becomes both threatening and absurd as Pinter's characters behave in ways often perceived as inexplicable by his audiences and one another. (Cf. Theatre of the Absurd.) Pinter acknowledges the influence of Samuel Beckett, particularly on his early work; they became friends, sending each other drafts of their works in progress for comments.
From the late sixties through the early eighties, Pinter wrote Landscape, Silence, "Night," Old Times, No Man's Land, Betrayal, and The Proust Screenplay, Family Voices, and A Kind of Alaska , all of which dramatize aspects of memory and which critics sometimes categorize as Pinter's "memory plays."
Pinter began to direct more frequently during the 1970s, becoming an associate director of the National Theatre in 1973, and he has directed almost fifty productions of his own and others' plays for stage, film, and television.
Beginning in the mid-1980s, his plays tended to become shorter and overtly political, serving as critiques of oppression, torture, and other abuses of human rights. In a 1985 interview called "A Play and Its Politics," with Nicholas Hern, published in the Grove Press edition of One for the Road, Pinter states that whereas his earlier plays presented "metaphors" about power and powerlessness, the later ones present "realities" of power and its abuse. From 1993 to 1999, reflecting both personal and political concerns, Pinter wrote Moonlight (1993) and Ashes to Ashes (1996), full-length plays with domestic settings relating to death and dying and (in the latter case) to such "atrocities" as the Holocaust; in this period, after the deaths of first his mother and then his father, again merging the personal and the political, Pinter wrote the poems "Death" (1997) (which he read in his 2005 Nobel Lecture) and "The Disappeared" (1998).
In July and August of 2001, a Harold Pinter Festival celebrating his work was held at Lincoln Center in New York City, which he participated in as both a director (of a double bill pairing his newest play Celebration with his first play The Room) and an actor (as Nicolas in One for the Road).
In October 2001, as part of a weeklong "Harold Pinter Homage" at the World Leaders Festival, in Toronto, he presented a dramatic reading of Celebration (2000), following the reception and during the dinner honoring him, and also participated in a public interview. That winter his collaboration with director Di Trevis resulted in their stage adaptation of his as-yet unfilmed 1972 work The Proust Screenplay (Remembrance of Things Past) being produced at the National Theatre, in London. There was also a revival of The Caretaker in the West End.
Late in 2001, Pinter was diagnosed with cancer of the esophagus, for which, in 2002, he underwent a successful operation and chemotherapy. During the course of his treatment, he directed a production of his play No Man's Land, wrote and performed in his new sketch "Press Conference" for a two-part otherwise-retrospective program of his dramatic sketches at the National Theatre, and was seen on television in America in the role of Vivian Bearing's father in the HBO film version of Margaret Edson's Pulitzer Prize-winning play Wit. Since then, having become increasingly politically "engaged" as "citizen Pinter," Pinter has continued to write and present politically-charged poetry, dramatic works, essays and speeches.
On February 28, 2005, in an interview with Mark Lawson on the BBC Radio 4 program Front Row, Pinter announced that he would retire from writing plays to dedicate himself to his political activism and writing poetry: "I think I've written 29 plays. I think it's enough for me. I think I've found other forms now. My energies are going in different directions—over the last few years I've made a number of political speeches at various locations and ceremonies . . . I'm using a lot of energy more specifically about political states of affairs, which I think are very, very worrying as things stand." Pinter has reiterated his statement subsequently, but occasionally leaves open the possibility that if a compelling dramatic "image" were to come to mind (which he states as "not likely"), perhaps he would still be obliged to pursue it. Indeed, after making this point, at the end of his Newsnight Review interview with Kirsty Wark, broadcast on June 23, 2006, he and Rupert Graves performed a dramatic reading of a "new work" by Pinter, a dramatic sketch called "Apart from That," inspired by Pinter's strong adversion to mobile telephones (He made clear that he doesn't own one).
On 25 August 2006, Pinter will take part in "Meet the Author" with Ramona Koval, at the Edinburgh Book Festival, in Edinburgh, Scotland, and, beginning on October 11th, the day after his 76th birthday, through October 21st, 2006, he will perform the role of Krapp in Krapp's Last Tape, by Samuel Beckett, as part of the fiftieth-anniversary celebration season of the Royal Court Theatre, in London.
Pinter was an early member of the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament in the United Kingdom and supported the British Anti-Apartheid Movement (1959-94), participating in British artists' refusal to permit professional productions of their work in South Africa in 1963 and in subsequent related campaigns). He has been active in International PEN, serving as a vice-president, along with American playwright Arthur Miller. In 1985, Pinter and Miller traveled to Turkey, on a mission co-sponsored by International PEN and a Helsinki Watch committee to investigate and protest the torture of imprisoned writers. There he met victims of political oppression and their families. At an American embassy dinner in Ankara, held in Miller's honor, at which Pinter was also an invited guest, speaking on behalf of those imprisoned Turkish writers, Pinter confronted the ambassador with (in Pinter's words) "[t]he reality . . . of electric current on your genitals": Pinter's outspokenness apparently angered their host and led to indications of his desired departure. Guest of honor Miller left the embassy with him. Recounting this episode for a tribute to Miller on his 80th birthday, Pinter concludes: "Being thrown out of the US embassy in Ankara with Arthur Miller — a voluntary exile — was one of the proudest moments in my life." Pinter's experiences in Turkey and his knowledge of the Turkish suppression of the Kurdish language "inspired" his 1988 play Mountain Language.
He is an active delegate of the Cuba Solidarity Campaign in the United Kingdom, an organization that defends Cuba, supports the government of Fidel Castro, and campaigns against the U.S. embargo on the country.. In 2001 Pinter joined the International Committee to Defend Slobodan Milošević (ICDSM), which appealed for a fair trial for and the freedom of Slobodan Milošević; he signed a related "Artists' Appeal for Milošević" in 2004. (The organization continues its presence on the internet even after Milošević's death in 2006.)
He strongly opposed the 1991 Gulf War, the 1999 NATO bombing campaign in Yugoslavia during the Kosovo War, the 2001 United States war in Afghanistan, and the 2003 Invasion of Iraq. He has been very active in the current anti-war movement in the United Kingdom, speaking at rallies held by the Stop the War Coalition. He has called the President of the United States, George W. Bush, a "mass murderer" and the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, Tony Blair, both "mass-murdering" and a "deluded idiot"; he alleges that they, along with past U.S. officials, are "war criminals". He has compared the Bush administration ("a bunch of criminal lunatics") with Adolf Hitler's Nazi Germany, saying that, under Bush, the United States ("a monster out of control") strives to attain "world domination" through "Full spectrum dominance," while, like a "bleating little lamb tagging behind it on a lead, the pathetic and supine Great Britain," led by Blair, participates in a slaughter instigated on behalf of "the American people," who, Pinter acknowledges, increasingly protest "their government's actions."
He continues to sign petitions on behalf of artistic and political causes that he supports, and became a signatory of the mission statement of Jews For Justice For Palestinians in 2005 and of its full-page advertisement, "What Is Israel Doing? A Call by Jews in Britain" featured in the London Times on 6 July 2006. He also co-signed an open letter about recent events in the Middle East distributed to major news publications and posted on the website of Noam Chomsky on 21 July 2006.
He also contributes letters to the editor, essays, speeches, and poetry strongly expressing his artistic and political viewpoints, which are frequently published initially in British periodicals, both via print and online publishing and, increasingly, distributed and re-distributed extensively over the Internet and throughout the blogosphere. These have been distributed more widely since his winning the Nobel Prize in Literature in 2005; subsequent related news accounts often cite his status as a Nobel Laureate.
Pinter was appointed CBE in 1966 and became a Companion of Honour in 2002 (having previously declined a knighthood in 1996). He has also received the 1995 David Cohen British Literature Prize, in recognition of a lifetime's achievement in literature, the 1996 Laurence Olivier Special Award for a lifetime's achievement in the theater; a 2001 World Leaders Award for "creative genius"; the 2004 Wilfred Owen Award for Poetry—"in recognition of Pinter's lifelong contribution to literature, 'and specifically for his collection of poetry entitled War, published in 2003,'" and the Europe Theatre Prize, in recognition of lifetime achievements pertaining to drama and theater (conferred March 2006).
The Nobel Prize in Literature 2005
On October 13, 2005 the Swedish Academy announced that it decided to award the Nobel Prize in Literature for 2005 to "Harold Pinter," "who in his plays uncovers the precipice under everyday prattle and forces entry into oppression's closed rooms." Nobel Week, including the Nobel Prize Awards Ceremony in Stockholm and related events throughout Scandinavia, occurred early in December 2005.
Due to concerns about his health, Pinter and his family could not attend the Awards Ceremony and related events of Nobel Week. After the Academy notified him of his award, he had arranged for his publisher (Stephen Page of Faber and Faber) to accept his Nobel Diploma and Nobel Medal at the Awards Ceremony scheduled for December 10th, but he had still planned to travel to Stockholm, to present his lecture in person a few days earlier. In November, however, he was hospitalized for a rare mouth infection, and his doctor barred such travel. While still hospitalized, Pinter went to a Channel Four studio to videotape his Nobel Lecture: "Art, Truth & Politics," which was projected on three large screens at the Swedish Academy on December 7, 2005. The video was simultaneously broadcast, introduced by friend and fellow playwright David Hare, that evening on Channel Four in the UK as well. Subsequently, the full text and streaming video formats were posted for the public on the Nobel Prize and Swedish Academy official websites.
Art, Truth & Politics: The Nobel Lecture
In his controversial Nobel Lecture "Art, Truth & Politics," speaking with obvious difficulty while seated in a wheelchair, Pinter distinguishes between the search for truth in art and the avoidance of truth in politics. He asserts:
Political language, as used by politicians, does not venture into any of this territory [of the artist] since the majority of politicians, on the evidence available to us, are interested not in truth but in power and in the maintenance of that power. To maintain that power it is essential that people remain in ignorance, that they live in ignorance of the truth, even the truth of their own lives. What surrounds us therefore is a vast tapestry of lies, upon which we feed.
As every single person here knows, the justification for the invasion of Iraq was that Saddam Hussein possessed a highly dangerous body of weapons of mass destruction, some of which could be fired in 45 minutes, bringing about appalling devastation. We were assured that was true. It was not true. We were told that Iraq had a relationship with Al-Qaeda and shared responsibility for the atrocity in New York of September 11th 2001. We were assured that this was true. It was not true. We were told that Iraq threatened the security of the world. We were assured it was true. It was not true.
The truth is something entirely different. The truth is to do with how the United States understands its role in the world and how it chooses to embody it.
Charging the United States with having "supported and in many cases engendered every right wing military dictatorship in the world after the end of the Second World War," leading to "hundreds of thousands of deaths," Pinter asks: "Did they take place? And are they in all cases attributable to US foreign policy?" Then he answers his own question: "The answer is yes they did take place and they are attributable to American foreign policy. But you wouldn't know it." Revisiting arguments from his political essays and speeches of the past decade, Pinter reiterates:
It never happened. Nothing ever happened. Even while it was happening it wasn't happening. It didn't matter. It was of no interest. The crimes of the United States have been systematic, constant, vicious, remorseless, but very few people have actually talked about them. You have to hand it to America. It has exercised a quite clinical manipulation of power worldwide while masquerading as a force for universal good. It's a brilliant, even witty, highly successful act of hypnosis.
I put to you that the United States is without doubt the greatest show on the road. Brutal, indifferent, scornful and ruthless it may be but it is also very clever. As a salesman it is out on its own and its most saleable commodity is self love. It's a winner. Listen to all American presidents on television say the words, 'the American people', as in the sentence, 'I say to the American people it is time to pray and to defend the rights of the American people and I ask the American people to trust their president in the action he is about to take on behalf of the American people.'
In imagery recalling his description of "speech" as "a constant stratagem to cover nakedness," Pinter adds:
It's a scintillating stratagem. Language is actually employed to keep thought at bay. The words 'the American people' provide a truly voluptuous cushion of reassurance. You don't need to think. Just lie back on the cushion. The cushion may be suffocating your intelligence and your critical faculties but it's very comfortable. This does not apply of course to the 40 million people living below the poverty line and the 2 million men and women imprisoned in the vast gulag of prisons, which extends across the US.
Toward the end of the lecture, after reading two poems referring to "blood in the streets," "deaths," "dead bodies," and "death" by fellow Nobel Laureate Pablo Neruda and himself, in a whimsically-humble gesture, Pinter offers to "volunteer" for the "job" of "speech writer" for President George W. Bush, penning a ruthless message of fierce aggression masquerading as moral struggle of good versus evil yet finally proferring the "authority" of his (Bush's) "fist". (The June 23, 2006 Newsnight program featuring Wark's interview of Pinter presents a video clip of his subsequent reading of "Bush's speech" before a later audience in London.) Pinter demands prosecution of Tony Blair in the International Criminal Court, while pointing out, with irony, that he would do the same for George W. Bush if Bush had not so shrewedly refused to "ratify" that Court. Pinter concludes his Nobel Lecture with a call for "unflinching, unswerving, fierce intellectual determination, as citizens, to define the real truth of our lives and our societies" as "a crucial obligation which devolves upon us all," one which he regards as "in fact mandatory," for, he warns, "If such a determination is not embodied in our political vision we have no hope of restoring what is so nearly lost to us — the dignity of man."
- Chairman of the Gaieties Cricket Club, Pinter has called cricket one of his three great "loves." The other "two" are "love" (of women) and "writing" (Gussow, Conversations with Pinter 28-29). "Running" (as a teenage sprinter ) and "reading" are two other pleasures that he mentions at times in interviews.
- Pinter is an Honorary Associate of the National Secular Society.
- On October 13, 2005, the day his Nobel Prize was announced, the Sky News reader saw his name and erroneously reported him dead. It was widely known that he had been battling esophageal cancer since 2002 and that he had fallen and injured his head in Dublin, upon returning from the Gate Theatre festival celebrating his 75th birthday that previous weekend; that knowledge may have led to her mistaken assumption. When interviewed about his reaction to the Nobel Prize announcement by Billington, Pinter joked: "I was told today that one of the Sky channels said this morning that 'Harold Pinter is dead[.'] Then they changed their mind and said, 'No, he's won the Nobel prize.' So I've risen from the dead."
- "That [Harold Pinter] occupies a position as a modern classic is illustrated by his name entering the language as an adjective used to describe a particular atmosphere and environment in drama: 'Pinteresque'" ("Bio-bibliography"), placing him in the company of authors considered unique or influential enough to elicit eponymous adjectives. According to Susan Harris Smith: "The term 'Pinteresque' has had an established place in the English language for almost thirty years. The OED Oxford English Dictionary defines it as 'of or relating to the British playwright, Harold Pinter, or his works'; thus, like a snake, swallowing its own tail, the definition forms the impenetrable logic of a closed circle and begs the question of what the word specifically means" (103). The Online OED defines Pinteresque somewhat further: "Resembling or characteristic of his plays. . . . Pinter's plays are typically characterized by implications of threat and strong feeling produced through colloquial language, apparent triviality, and long pauses." Pinter has occasionally objected to the use of Pinteresque, as he again did, on June 23, 2006, when Kirsty Wark asked him specifically about "what Pinteresque might be."
- Once asked what his plays are about, Pinter lobbed back a phrase "the weasel under the cocktail cabinet", which he regrets has been taken seriously and applied in popular criticism. Like one of the "two silences" that he defined in his 1962 speech to the National Student Drama Festival in Bristol, such a time when "too many words are spoken" may be "irrevocable"; it cannot be "taken back":
Despite Pinter's protestations to the contrary, many reviewers and other critics still find that Pinter's "remark," though "facetious," is still an apt description of his plays.
Once many years ago, I found myself engaged uneasily in a public discussion on theatre. Someone asked me what was my work 'about'. I replied with no thought at all and merely to frustrate this line of enquiry: 'the weasel under the cocktail cabinet'. This was a great mistake. Over the years I have seen that remark quoted in a number of learned columns. It has now seemingly acquired a profound significance, and is seen to be a highly relevant and meaningful observation about my own work. But for me the remark meant precisely nothing.
- A witty homage to Pinter's play Betrayal occurs in an episode of Seinfeld entitled ""The Betrayal." Structured in reverse somewhat like the play, the episode features a character named "Pinter." Coincidentally, Pinter's play features a character named "Jerry," the first name of co-creator Jerry Seinfeld and the main character of Seinfeld based on himself.
- The fourth episode of the second season of Dawson's Creek, "Tamara's Return" (28 Oct. 1998), alludes to Pinter in dialogue between lead character Pacey Witter (played by Joshua Jackson) and Tamara Jacobs (Leann Hunley), his former English teacher with whom Pacey has had an affair. Tamara tells Pacey that an awkward moment of silence between them is "what we ex-English teachers call a classic 'Pinter' moment, where everything is said in silence because the emotion behind what we really want to say is just too overwhelming. . . . [S]ilence is an acquired taste. The more complicated life becomes the better it is to learn to say nothing." When Pacey inquires "Who is this Pinter guy?" Tamara urges him, "Stay in school." Later Pacey tells Tamara that he has "looked up this Pinter guy. Harold, playwright, the king of subtext. You say one thing, but you mean another," wondering further: "Do you think it's possible for us to have a moment without all the subtext?" "Uh, I don't know, Pacey," Tamara replies. "Words have always gotten us into so much trouble." Pacey and Tamara finally agree that "This Pinter guy was really onto something." Ironically, one of those words which has "gotten" Pinter critics "into so much trouble" is that very word subtext.
Stage and television plays
- The Room (1957)
- The Birthday Party (1957)
- The Dumb Waiter (1957)
- A Slight Ache (1958)
- The Hothouse (1958)
- The Caretaker (1959)
- A Night Out (1959)
- Night School (1960)
- The Dwarfs (1960)
- The Collection (1961)
- The Lover (1962)
- Tea Party (1964)
- The Homecoming (1964)
- The Basement (1966)
- Landscape (1967)
- Silence (1968)
- Old Times (1970)
- Monologue (1972)
- No Man's Land (1974)
- Betrayal (1978)
- Family Voices (1980)
- A Kind of Alaska (1982)
- Victoria Station (1982)
- One for the Road (1984)
- Mountain Language (1988)
- Party Time (1991)
- Moonlight (1993)
- Ashes to Ashes (1996)
- Celebration (1999)
- Remembrance of Things Past (2000) [Stage adapt. of The Proust Screenplay; a collaboration with Di Trevis.
- "The Black and White" (1959)
- "Trouble in the Works" (1959)
- "Last to Go" (1959)
- "Request Stop" (1959)
- "Special Offer" (1959)
- "That's Your Trouble" (1959)
- "That's All" (1959)
- "Interview" (1959)
- "Applicant" (1959)
- "Dialogue for Three" (1959)
- "Night" (1969)
- "Precisely" (1983)
- "The New World Order" (1991)
- "Press Conference" (2002)
- "Apart from That" (first public reading 2006) [Unpublished]
- Voices (2005) (collaboration with composer James Clarke)
Screenplays for films
- The Caretaker (1963)
- The Servant (1963)
- The Pumpkin Eater (1963)
- The Compartment (1963) [Screenplay for unproduced film; adapt. for stage as The Basement]]]
- The Quiller Memorandum (1965)
- Accident (1966)
- The Birthday Party (1967)
- The Go-Between (1969)
- The Homecoming (1969)
- Langrishe, Go Down (1970; adapt. for TV 1978; film release 2002]
- The Proust Screenplay (1972) [Published but unproduced for film; rev. & adapt. for stage (2000); cf. Remembrance of Things Past.]
- The Last Tycoon (1974)
- The French Lieutenant's Woman (1980)
- Betrayal (1981)
- Victory (1982) [Published but unproduced]
- Turtle Diary (1984)
- The Handmaid's Tale (1987)
- Reunion (1988)
- The Heat of the Day (1988) [adapt. for TV]
- The Comfort of Strangers (1989)
- Party Time (1992) (Rev. & adapt. for TV)
- The Trial (1989)
- Lolita (1994) [Unpublished and unproduced; cf. Lolita (1997 film)
- The Dreaming Child (1997) [Published but unproduced]
- The Tragedy of King Lear (2000) [Unpublished and unproduced]
- "Kullus" (1949)
- The Dwarfs (written from 1952-1956; rev. and published 1990) (Novel)
- "Latest Reports from the Stock Exchange" (1953)
- "The Black and White" (1954-55)
- "The Examination" (1955)
- "Tea Party" (1963)
- "The Coast" (1975)
- "Problem" (1976)
- "Lola" (1977)
- "Short Story" (1995)
- "Girls" (1995)
- "God's District" (1997) [Unpublished]
- "Sorry About This" (1999)
- "Tess" (2000)
- "Voices in the Tunnel" (2001)
- Poems (1971)
- I Know the Place (1977)
- Poems and Prose 1949-1977 (1978)
- Ten Early Poems (1990)
- Collected Poems and Prose (1995)
- "The Disappeared" and Other Poems (2002)
- War (2003)
Anthologies and other collections
- 99 Poems in Translation: An Anthology Selected by Harold Pinter, Anthony Astbury, & Geoffrey Godbert (1994)
- 100 Poems by 100 Poets: An Anthology Selected by Harold Pinter, Anthony Astbury, & Geoffrey Godbert (1987; rpt. 1992)
- 101 Poems Against War (2003). Eds. Matthew Hollis & Paul Kegan. Afterword Andrew Motion. (Incl. "American Football," by Harold Pinter .)
- The Essential Pinter (Grove Press, forthcoming Aug. 2006)
- Poems by Harold Pinter Chosen by Antonia Fraser. (Greville Press Pamphlets, 2002) [Ltd ed. of 300 copies, "of which the first fifty are numbered and signed by the selector."]
- Various Voices: Prose, Poetry, Politics 1948-2005 (1998; rev. 2005)
- Death etc. (2005)
- ^ See the Swedish Academy's Announcement (incl. links to video of official Nobel "Announcement," "Interview," and "Press Release"). See also the "Special Report" posted in The Guardian Online, including "'The foremost representative of British drama': Excerpts From the Swedish Academy's Citation Awarding the 2005 Nobel Prize for Literature to British Playwright Harold Pinter" (13 Oct. 2006). "Bio-bibliography" for Harold Pinter posted online on the Swedish Academy and the Nobel Foundation websites incorporates the full version of Pinter's Nobel citation.
- ^ Billington, Life and Work 1-5: "A constant feature of the Pinter legend, repeated in all the books, is that the family were Sephardic Jews of Spanish or Portuguese origin and that the original family name was Pinto, da Pinto or da Pinta, but there seems no evidence for this whatsoever. Indeed Antonia Fraser, with a historian's passion for genealogy, sat down with Pinter's parents one afternoon after lunch in Holland Park and discovered the real story: three of Pinter's grandparents [his paternal grandfather, Nathan Pinter, and his grandmothers] hail from Poland and one [his maternal grandfather, Harry Moskowitz (in business, aka Richard Mann)] from Odessa, making them Ashkenazic rather than Sephardic Jews" (3). ("Pinter's paternal grandfather Nathan was born in Poland in 1870 and came to England alone in 1900 in the wave of Russian pograms. He later went back for his wife and family. . . . [Their] third child Jack, Harold Pinter's father, was born in the East End in 1902. . ." [2-3]. Pinter's maternal grandfather [Harry Moskowitz (Richard Mann)] emigrated to London from Odessa "via Paris" in 1900 and remarried "Polish-born Rose Franklin" following his first wife's death; Pinter's mother, Frances, their "eldest" child, was born in 1904 .) In the Aug. 1950 issue of Poetry London, Pinter's first poems to appear in such a poetry magazine ("New Year in the Midlands" and "Chandeliers and Shadows") were "published under the name of Harold Pinta largely because one of his aunts was convinced—against all the evidence—that the family came from distinguished Portuguese ancestors, the da Pintas" (29). Pinter also discussed his heritage with Ramona Koval, during a public interview at the Edinburgh Book Festival in August 2002, later transcribed and posted online on ABC public radio (Books and Writing). At that time, Pinter repeated some of these details, referring to speculations about his family's Hungarian and Portuguese derivations: "My mother and father were born in England, by the way, in about 1902 and 1904; so they were here. They were English. . . . they were English-Jewish. My grandparents came from a rather mysterious area which some call Odessa and others call Hungary. I have no idea. My wife is convinced that after a lot of research, and she’s pretty good at research, that my family did actually come from Odessa. And she has pretty good evidence of that. However, I found that in the 1946 Olympics there was a Hungarian sprinter called Pinter. And I also know that—I’ve been told, anyway—one of my aunts believed that we were originally da Pinta in Portugal and that we were thrown out by the Spanish Inquisition. I wasn’t quite sure whether they had a Spanish Inquisition in Portugal, but according to my aunt, they certainly did. [laughter]. [Cf. Portuguese Inquisition.] And where they went from the Spanish Inquisition is rather misty, shall we say, so I’m not quite sure . . . Anyway, in short, my background is slightly misty. But my family, nevertheless, was a very stable and conventional Jewish family." (Pintér [or Pinter is a common Hungarian surname; Pinto, Pinta, and da Pinta are common Portuguese surnames and place names. Pinto and da Pinto also occur in Italian [by way of Portuguese]. Cf. List of most common surnames.)
- ^ Pinter's paternal "grandmother's maiden name was Baron . . . he adopted it as his stage-name . . . [and] used it [Baron] for the autobiographical character of Mark in the first draft of [his novel] The Dwarfs" (Billington, Life and Work 3).
- ^ In an Oct. 1989 interview with Mel Gussow, Pinter says, "I was in English rep as an actor for about 12 years. My favourite roles were undoubtedly the sinister ones. They're something to get your teeth into" (83).
- ^ Billington, Life and Work 20-25; 31, 36, 38; Batty, "Chronology" in About Pinter; Batty, comp., "Acting" & "Directing" at HaroldPinter.org.
- ^ "People," online posting, Time Archive: 1923 to the Present 11 Aug. 1975 (7 July 2006).
- ^ Now nearing fifty, a reclusive gifted writer and musician, Daniel does not use the surname Pinter, having adopted as his surname his maternal grandmother's maiden name, Brand, after his parents separated (Life and Work 276, 255).
- ^ See, e.g., Billington, Life and Work and Moss.
- ^ Woolf, as qtd. in Merritt, "Talking about Pinter" 147.
- ^ See the program announcement of Artist and Citizen: Fifty Years of Performing Pinter posted on the website of the Harold Pinter Society.
- ^ See Harold Hobson, "The Screw Turns Again," originally published in the London Sunday Times 25 May 1958: 11; cf. Merritt, "Sir Harold Hobson: The Promptings of Personal Experience" 221-25. The entire review is accessible in the sec. on The Birthday Party (premiere) at HaroldPinter.org, including the following often-quoted passage:
One of the actors in Harold Pinter[']s The Birthday Party at the Lyric, Hammersmith, announces in the programme that he read History at Oxford, and took his degree with Fourth Class Honours. Now I am well aware that Mr Pinter[']s play received extremely bad notices last Tuesday morning. At the moment I write these it is uncertain even whether the play will still be in the bill by the time they appear, though it is probable it will soon be seen elsewhere. Deliberately, I am willing to risk whatever reputation I have as a judge of plays by saying that The Birthday Party is not a Fourth, not even a Second, but a First; and that Pinter, on the evidence of his work, possesses the most original, disturbing and arresting talent in theatrical London. . . . Mr Pinter and The Birthday Party, despite their experiences last week, will be heard of again. Make a note of their names.
- ^ Billington, Life and Work 85; e.g., in their Sept. 1993 interview, Pinter told Mel Gussow: "I felt pretty discouraged before Hobson. He had a tremendous influence on my life" (141).
- ^ Harold Pinter at the Internet Broadway Database
- ^ Merritt, Pinter in Play 225-26.
- ^ Harold Pinter on Newsnight Review.
- ^ Press release International Festival of Authors, Toronto.
- ^ Archived production details National Theatre, London, Feb. 2001.
- ^ See "Pinter to 'give up writing plays.'"
- ^ See "Harold Pinter on Newsnight Review."
- ^ See Edinburgh Book Festival and the production announcement for Krapp's Last Tape, as well as "Upcoming events for the year 2006" on the home page of HaroldPinter.org.
- ^ See E. S. Reddy, "Free Mandela: An Account of the Campaign to Free Nelson Mandela and All Other Political Prisoners in South Africa," July 1988, online posting, African National Congress (ANC): Documents: History of Campaigns.
- ^ Qtd. from "Arthur Miller's Socks," posted in "Campaigning Against Torture" at HaroldPinter.org and rpt. in Various Voices.
- ^ Billington, Life and Work 309-10; Gussow, Conversations with Pinter 67-68.
- ^ See the Cuba Solidarity Campaign website Hands Off Cuba!
- ^ Pinter, in a public reading from War, as qtd. by Chrisafis and Tilden, "Pinter blasts 'Nazi America' and 'deluded idiot' Blair"; Pinter's remarks to the mass peace protest demonstration held on February 15, 2003 in London, published as "Speech at Hyde Park"; and Pinter's 2005 Nobel Lecture, "Art, Truth & Politics": "Many thousands, if not millions, of people in the United States itself are demonstrably sickened, shamed and angered by their government's actions, but as things stand they are not a coherent political force - yet. But the anxiety, uncertainty and fear which we can see growing daily in the United States is unlikely to diminish." Cf. Not in Our Name.
- ^ See "About Jews For Justice For Palestinians," featuring its mission statement and links to a pdf file of the ad.
- ^ See "What's New," online posting, Chomsky.info; cf. "Letter From Pinter, Saramago, Chomsky and Berger"; both accessed 25 July 2006. The letter was signed first by John Berger, Noam Chomsky, Harold Pinter, and José Saramago and "later endorsed" by Tariq Ali, et al.
- ^ Wilfred Owen Association Newsletter 4 Aug. 2004; and the Europe Theatre Prize--X Ed. (8-12 Mar. 2006); see espec. "Letter of Motivation". NB: More fully-complete lists of Pinter's many other awards, including several honorary degrees from universities around the world, appear in the section on Pinter's "Biography" posted online at his official website HaroldPinter.org and in published chronologies of his career. See also his Nobel Prize Bio-bibliography, notably: Baker and Ross; Gordon (ed.), Pinter at 70; Merritt (comp.), "Harold Pinter Bibliography"; and webpages of The Harold Pinter Society. Updates are generally listed on HaroldPinter.org.
- ^ Qtd. in press release, 13 Oct. 2005, online posting, Nobel Prize official website. The press release accompanied its recorded press conference. (Audio and video streaming media files of the press conference and related interviews are accessible on the official websites of the Nobel Prize and the Swedish Academy.)
- ^ See "Publisher to Stand In for Pinter at Nobel Ceremony."
- ^ See Lyall, "Playwright Takes a Prize and a Jab at U.S."
- ^ These formats of Pinter's Nobel Lecture have been widely cited, quoted, and distributed by print and online media and the source of much commentary and debate. For selected commentary about and later published versions of "Art, Truth & Politics," see References.
- ^ "Art, Truth, & Politics:The Nobel Lecture."
- ^ In his 1962 speech to the National Student Drama Festival in Bristol, in an often-quoted passage, Pinter observes:
There are two silences. One when no word is spoken. The other when perhaps a torrent of language is being employed. This speech is speaking of a language locked beneath it. That is its continual reference. The speech we hear is an indication of that which we don't hear. It is a necessary avoidance, a violent, sly, anguished or mocking smoke screen which keeps the other in its place. When true silence falls we are still left with echo but are nearer nakedness. One way of looking at speech is to say that it is a constant stratagem to cover nakedness. ("Writing for the Theatre," rpt. in Various Voices 24-25)
- ^ Online posting of the full text of Pinter's Nobel Lecture.
- ^ Qtd. in Billington, comp., "'They've said you've a call from the Nobel Committee. I said, Why?'"
- ^ "Harold Pinter on Newsnight Review."
- ^ "I am not suggesting that no character in a play can never say what he in fact means. Not at all. I have found that there invariably does come a moment when this happens, when he says something, perhaps, which he has never said before. And where this happens, what he says is irrevocable, and can never be taken back" (rpt. in Various Voices 25).
- ^ Harold Pinter, "On Being Awarded the German Shakespeare Prize in Hamburg" (1970), rpt. in Various Voices 39.
- ^ See, e.g., Sofer 29: "Asked what his plays were about, Harold Pinter once notoriously quipped, 'the weasel under the cocktail cabinet' . . . . Although Pinter later repudiated this remark as facetious, it does contain an important clue about his relationship to English dramatic tradition."
- ^ "Some Other Language Games," chap. 7 in Merritt, Pinter in Play 137-70.
- ^ HaroldPinter.org lists this work as a "play," but it is actually a 4-page dramatic sketch; it lasts approximately eight to ten minutes in production. It was first produced as a "curtain raiser" for Death and the Maiden by Ariel Dorfman at the Royal Court Upstairs in London, in July 1991, which went on to Washington, D.C.; its production poster featured on HaroldPinter.org identifies it as a "sketch." "The New World Order" is also identified as a "sketch" in a review of the Royal Court première by Mel Gussow, "Critic's Notebook: On the London Stage, a Feast of Revenge, Menace and Guilt." Online posting. New York Times 31 July 1991. Recent productions and publications do refer to it, however, more generically, as a "play," perhaps following the website's "Plays" section.
- Batty, Mark. About Pinter: The Playwright and The Work. London: Faber and Faber, 2005. ISBN 0571220053.
- Bensky, Lawrence M. "The Art of Theater No. 3: Harold Pinter" (Interview). Online posting. The Paris Review 39 (Fall 1966). 30 June 2006.
- Billington, Michael. The Life and Work of Harold Pinter. 1996; rpt. London: Faber and Faber, 1997. ISBN 0-571-17103-6.
- –––. "Passionate Pinter's Devastating Assault On US Foreign Policy: Shades of Beckett As Ailing Playwright Delivers Powerful Nobel Lecture." Online posting. The Guardian 8 Dec. 2005. 31 July 2006.
- –––, comp. "'They said you've a call from the Nobel committee. I said, why?': Harold Pinter in His Own Words." Online posting. The Guardian 14 Oct. 2005. 31 July 2006.
- "Bio-bibliography" for Harold Pinter: The Nobel Prize in Literature 2005. Online posting. Nobel Foundation and Swedish Academy. NobelPrize.org. Oct. 2005. 31 July 2006.
- Bond, Paul. "Harold Pinter's Artistic Achievement." Online posting. World Socialist Web Site 29 Dec. 2005. 31 July 2006.
- Brown, Mark. "What Is It (War) Good for?" Online posting. Socialist Review Sept. 2003. 31 July 2006.
- "Bush and Blair slated by Pinter." Online posting. BBC News 7 Dec. 2005. 31 July 2006. [Features related links.]
- Chrisafis, Angelique, and Imogen Tilden. "Pinter Blasts 'Nazi America' and 'deluded idiot' Blair." Online posting. The Guardian 11 June 2003.
- Gussow, Mel. Conversations with Pinter. London: Nick Hern Books, 1994. ISBN 1854592017. Rpt. New York: Limelight, 2004. ISBN 087910172.
- Hitchens, Christopher. "Commentary: The Sinister Mediocrity of Harold Pinter." Wall Street Journal 17 Oct. 2005, A18. (Online ed. of this article restricted to subscribers.) Online posting in The Silver Christopher. Znet 18 Oct. 2005. 4 July 2006.
- Howard, Jennifer. "Nobel Prize in Literature Goes to Harold Pinter, British Playwright Widely Studied in Academe." Online posting. Chronicle of Higher Education 13 Oct. 2006. 8 July 2006.
- Koval, Ramona. "Books and Writing with Ramona Koval: Harold Pinter." Radio National Australian Broadcasting Corporation 15 Sept. 2002. Transcript of interview conducted at Edinburgh Book Festival, Edinburgh, Scotland, Aug. 2002.
- Lyall, Sarah. "Playwright Takes a Prize and a Jab at U.S." Online posting. New York Times 8 Dec. 2006. Correction appended 10 Dec. 2005. 1 Aug. 2006. (Site registration required.)
- Merritt, Susan Hollis. Pinter in Play: Critical Strategies and the Plays of Harold Pinter. Paperback ed. 1990; Durham and London: Duke UP, 1995. ISBN 0822316749.
- –––. "Talking about Pinter." (On the Lincoln Center 2001: Harold Pinter Festival Symposia.) The Pinter Review: Collected Essays 2001 and 2002. Ed. Francis Gillen and Steven H. Gale. Tampa: U of Tampa P, 2002. 144-67.
- –––, comp. "Harold Pinter Bibliography." The Pinter Review 1987- .
- Moss, Stephen. "The Guardian Profile: Harold Pinter: Under the Volcano." Online posting. The Guardian 4 Sept. 1999. 7 July 2006.
- Pilger, John. "The Silence of Writers." Online posting. ZNet 16 Oct. 2005. 5 July 2006.
- Pinter, Harold. Art, Truth & Politics: The Nobel Lecture. Presented on video in Stockholm, Sweden. 7 Dec. 2005. Online posting. Nobel Foundation and Swedish Academy. NobelPrize.org 8 Dec. 2005. (RealPlayer streaming audio and video as well as text available). London: Faber and Faber, 2006. ISBN 0571233961 [NB: date of presentation in Faber's online description is incorrect; 7 Dec. 2005 not 2006]. Rpt. in Not One More Death (London: Stop the War Coalition, 2006); forthcoming in The Essential Pinter.
- –––. "Campaigning Against Torture: Arthur Miller's Socks" (1985). ("Written as a tribute to Arthur Miller, on the occasion of his 80th birthday.") Online posting. HaroldPinter.org 3 July 2006. Rpt. in Various Voices 56-57.
- –––. Death etc. New York: Grove, 2005. ISBN 0802142257.
- –––. The Essential Pinter: Selections from the Work of Harold Pinter. New York: Grove, forthcoming Aug. 2006. ISBN 0802142699. (In press.)
- –––. Various Voices: Prose, Poetry, Politics 1948-2005. Rev. ed. 1998; London: Faber and Faber, 2005. ISBN 0571230091.
- –––. War. London: Faber and Faber, 2003. ISBN 0571221319.
- "Pinter 'to give up writing plays.'" Online posting. BBC News 28 Feb. 2005. 2 July 2006.
- "Pinter Wins Nobel Literary Prize." Online posting. BBC News 13 Oct. 2005. 8 July 2006.
- Riddell, Mary. "Comment:Prophet without Honour: Harold Pinter Can Be Cantankerous and Puerile. But He Is a Worthy Nobel Prizewinner." Online posting. The Observer 11 Dec. 2005. 3 July 2006.
- –––. "The New Statesman Interview: Harold Pinter." Online posting. New Statesman 8 Nov. 1999. 1 July 2006. (Limited access.)
- Smith, Susan Harris. "'Pinteresque' in the Popular Press." The Pinter Review: Collected Essays 2003 and 2004. Ed. Francis Gillen and Steven H. Gale. Tampa: U of Tampa P, 2004. 103-8.
- Sofer, Andrew. "The Cheese-Roll under the Cocktail Cabinet: Pinter's Object Lessons." The Pinter Review: Collected Essays 2003 and 2004. Ed. Francis Gillen and Steven H. Gale. Tampa: U of Tampa P, 2004. 29-38.
- "Special Report: The Nobel Prize for Literature: 2005 Harold Pinter." Online posting. The Guardian Dec. 2005. 30 June 2006. 1 Aug. 2006. [Features related links.]
- Traub, James. "The Way We Live Now: Their Highbrow Hatred of Us." Online posting. New York Times Mag. 30 Oct. 2005. 2 July 2006.
- Wark, Kirsty. "Harold Pinter on Newsnight Review." Online posting. BBC News 23 June 2006. 1 Aug. 2006. (RealPlayer streaming video of program broadcast on 23 June accessible from 24-30 June 2006; accessed 25 June 2006.)
Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Additional essays and speeches by Harold Pinter
- "Aristotle University of Thessaloniki Degree Speech April 18th 2000." Online posting. HaroldPinter.org. 7 July 2006.
- "Caribbean Cold War." The Guardian 4 Dec. 1996. Online posting. Red Pepper May 1996. Rpt. in Various Voices 209-12.
- Foreword. Degraded Capability: The Media and the Kosovo Crisis. Ed. Philip Hammond and Edward S. Herman. London: Pluto Press, 2000. ISBN 074531631X.
- "Harold Pinter's speech at Turin University." Online posting. Stop the War Coalition. 27 Nov. 2002. Also published as "The American Administration Is a Bloodthirsty Wild Animal." Online posting. The Daily Telegraph 11 Dec. 2002. Rpt. in Various Voices 241-43; War [7-9; n. pag.].
- "House of Commons Speech" (15 Oct. 2002). Online posting. HaroldPinter.org. Rpt. in Death etc. 71-73.
- "House of Commons Speech" (21 Jan. 2003). Online posting. HaroldPinter.org. Rpt. in Various Voices 244.
- "It Never Happened." Online posting. Z Magazine Feb. 1997. Rpt. in Various Voices 214-17.
- "Iraq Debate: Imperial War Museum, 23 September 2004." Online posting. HaroldPinter.org. Rpt. in Various Voices 245-46.
- "An Open Letter to the Prime Minister." The Guardian 17 Feb. 1998. Online posting. "The Gulf War and the Continuing Bombing of Iraq." HaroldPinter.org. Rpt. in Various Voices 235-37.
- "Speech at Hyde Park (F)ebruary 15th 2003." Online posting. HaroldPinter.org. 6 July 2006.
- "University of Florence Speech: On the Occasion of the Award of an Honourary Degree, 10 September 2001." Online posting. HaroldPinter.org. Rpt. in Various Voices 238-40.
- "The War Against Reason." Online posting. Red Pepper Dec. 2002.
- "Wilfred Owen Award for Poetry: Acceptance Speech, 18 March 2005." Online posting. HaroldPinter.org. Rpt. in Death etc. 1-2; Various Voices 247-48.
Other external links
- "Apart from That." Streaming video of Pinter's dramatic sketch as performed by Harold Pinter and Rupert Graves on Newsnight on 23 June 2006. (1:07 mins.) Online re-posting. Eamelje.net 24 June 2006. 3 July 2006. (NB: See "disclaimer.")
- Bio-bibliography for Harold Pinter: The Nobel Prize in Literature 2005 by the Swedish Academy. Online posting. Nobel Foundation and Swedish Academy Official Websites.
- Harold Pinter HaroldPinter.org: Official website of Harold Pinter. Home page.
- Harold Pinter at the Internet Broadway Database.
- Harold Pinter at the Internet Movie Database.
- "Harold Pinter." Online posting. The Artists Network of Refuse & Resist! 12 Dec. 2005. 4 July 2006. (17 pages.) A selection of writings by and commentary about Pinter.
- "Harold Pinter." Online posting. Contemporary Writers. Biography and critical account provided by Michael Billington for British Council: Arts.
- "Harold Pinter." Online posting. Literary Encyclopedia. Biography and critical account.
- "Harold Pinter (b. 1930)." Online posting. The Poetry Archive. Biography, critical account, and streaming audio of a special recording of Pinter reading four of his poems: "Cancer Cells," "It is Here," "Later," and "Episode"; recorded 16 Dec. 2002, The Audio Workshop, London; prod. Richard Carrington.
- "Harold Pinter (1930- )." Online posting. Books and Writers. Biography and critical account. (Featured on Authors' Calendar 2005-2006). 1 July 2006.
- The Harold Pinter Society. Allied organization of the Modern Language Association.
- "Listmania: Harold Pinter: Winner of the 2005 Nobel Prize for Literature."
- Nobel Prize in Literature Medal
|The Plays of Harold Pinter
|Plays : Ashes to Ashes, The Basement, Betrayal, The Birthday Party, The Caretaker, Celebration, The Collection, The Dumb Waiter, The Dwarfs, Family Voices, The Homecoming, The Hothouse, A Kind of Alaska, Landscape, The Lover, Moonlight, Monologue, Mountain Language, A Night Out, Night School, No Man's Land, Old Times, One For the Road, Party Time, Remembrance of Things Past (with Di Trevis), The Room, Silence, A Slight Ache, Tea Party, Victoria Station, Voices (with James Clarke)
Sketches : Apart from That, Applicant, The Black and White, Dialogue for Three, Interview, Last to Go, The New World Order, Night, Precisely, Press Conference, Request Stop, Special Offer, That's All, That's Your Trouble, Trouble in the Works
Nobel Prize in Literature: Laureates (2001- )
2001: Naipaul | 2002: Kertész | 2003: Coetzee | 2004: Jelinek | 2005: Pinter
Complete List | Laureates (1901-1925) | Laureates (1926-1950) | Laureates (1951-1975) | Laureates (1976-2000)