Cavalleria rusticana ("Rustic Chivalry") is an opera in one act by Pietro Mascagni to a libretto by Targioni-Tozzetti and Menasci, adapted from a short story by Giovanni Verga. It premiered on May 17, 1890 at the Teatro Costanzi in Rome. Since 1893, it has often been performed in a so-called "Cav/Pag" double bill with Pagliacci by Ruggero Leoncavallo.
(The verismo composer Domenico Monleone also composed an opera with the same name which was premiered in Amsterdam, 1907, but it was soon withdrawn because of legal action taken by Mascagni.)
While the curtain is down, Turiddu sings. (Siciliana: "O Lola, lovely as the spring’s bright blooms.") The action takes place before the church. Devout pantomime by the church-goers; behind the scene, chorus of peasants. ("Queen of Heaven.") At last Santuzza and Lucia appear from opposite sides of the stage. (Santuzza: "Tell me, mamma Lucia.") Turiddu is the lover of Santuzza and she believes he has discarded her for Lola; she has seen him entering the young woman’s house. The carrier Alfio, the husband of Lola, appears with the chorus and also says that he has seen Turiddu, but thinks nothing wrong of it. When Lucia, who has sent her son to Frankofonte for wine, inquires further into the matter, she is asked to be silent by Santuzza. (Romanza: "Well do you know, good mamma.")
After the chorus with Alfio has departed, Santuzza recites her wrongs. Turiddu loved Lola, but after his service in the army found her married to Alfio. He then entered into relations with Santuzza, and is now turning back to his former love. The alarmed Lucia enters the church with the peasants. Santuzza awaits Turiddu (Scene: "You, Santuzza"), who, however, treats her coldly and drives her to despair by leaving her and entering the church with Lola. (Duet:, Ah what folly"; Lola: "My king of roses.") "You shall suffer in blood for this," Santuzza exclaims, and discovers to the returning Alfio the unfaithfulness of Lola. (Duet: "God has sent you, neighbour Alfio.") Breathing vengeance, the carrier resolves to kill Turiddu and departs with Santuzza. During the following orchestral music (Intermezzo) the stage remains empty.
Turiddu, Lola and the chorus emerge from the church; Turiddu sings a drinking song ("Hail the red wine, richly flowing") and is then challenged by Alfio to a duel with knives after the manner of the Sicilians. Promising to follow Alfio he takes a moving farewell of his mother, and asks her to care for the unhappy Santuzza, whom he has so deeply wronged. After a short pause, Santuzza, followed by a crowd of women, rushes upon the stage, and with the stark cry of "Turiddu is dead," the opera ends abruptly.
Cavalleria rusticana, though it appears melodramatic by modern standards, is one of the few verismo operas that have consistently remained in the repertory.
While not technically an Aria, additionally noteworthy (and famous) is the opera's symphonic Intermezzo.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to: